The greatest contribution to civilization in the century may well be the air-conditioning nd American leads the way. Just as amazing is the speed with which this situation came to be. Air-conditioning began to spread in industries as a production aid during World War II.
Today most Americans need to take air-conditioning for granted to homes, offices, factories, heatres, shops, studios, schools, hotels, and restaurants.
But not everybody is aware that high cost and easy comfort are merely two of the effects of the vast cooling of American. In fact, air conditioning has substantially altered the country’s character and customs.
Many of the byproducts are so conspicuous that they are scarcely noticed. To begin with, air-conditioning transformed the face of America by making possible those glassy,boxy, sealed-in skyscrapers. It has been indispensable, no less, to the functioning of sensitive advanced computers, whose high operating temperatures require that they be constantly cooled.
It has, at will, forced families into retreating into families with closed doors and shut windows, reducing the interactions of neighborhood life. It is really surprising that the public’s often noted withdrawal into self-pursuit and privacy has coincided with the historic
spread of air-conditioning. Though science has little studied how habitual air-conditioning affects mind and body, some medical experts suggest that, like other technical avoidance of natural variations in climate, air-conditioning may damage the human capacity to adapt to stress If so, air-conditioning is only like many other greatly useful technical developments that liberate man from nature by increasing his productivity and power in some way — while indirectly weakening him in others.
43. According to this selection, which of the following constitutes the unique character of U.S.?
A. Its excessive use of air-conditioning.
B. Its advanced computerized civilization.
C. Its public’s retreating into self-pursuit.
D. Its greatest contribution to human civilization.
44. According to the author, the chief consequence brought about by the wide application of air-conditioning is ______.
A. the loss of human capacity to adapt to changes in climate
B. the reduction of social communications of neighborhood life
C. the active life style of all its users
D. the decreased human production and power
45. The tone of this selection reveals that air-conditioning ______.
A. has little effect on its users
B. has more effect on body than on mind
C. brings more benefits than damage to its users
D. does harm as well as good to its users
46. Who benefits the least from air-conditioning according to the author?
A. Medical experts. B. Manufacturers.
C. Factory laborers. D. Consumers.
47. What is the author’s overall attitude towards air-conditioning?
A. Neutral. B. Objective.
C. Critical. D. Compromising.
Ms. Eunice Chan
B.S. Consultants 10-EE Central City Building, Bangalore 560 097 India
Dear Ms. Chan,
I very much enjoyed your talk at the International Conference on Public Architecture in Mumbai. I especially appreciated your assessment of the competing demands of function, budget, and public expectations on municipal projects.
Our firm has recently been awarded the contract for the design of a large public swimming facility here in Singapore, and I think that our staff would be most interested in your remarks. It would provide useful discussion points for us as we plan and execute the project. Would it be possible to obtain a copy of your speech and reproduce twenty copies for our internal use only? We would not distribute any part of it outside the company without first obtaining permission from you, nor would we include any part of it in any of our presentations external bodies without your permission and without acknowledgement of you
as the author.It might be that you have plans to publish the material in some form in a journal or trade magazine. If that is the case, I understand that you would not want to release it to us. In that event, would you please inform me when and where it will be published?
Thank you very much for your consideration and for a superb presentation.
Wong Architecture, Pty. Ltd.
48. What can be inferred about Mr. Wong?
A. He attended a presentation given by Ms. Chan.
B. He is seeking employees for his architecture firm
C. He would like to submit an article for publication.
D. He wants to purchase a subscription to a trade journal.
49. What is the awarded contract on?
A. Giving a public presentation.
B. Planning an awards ceremony.
C. The cooperation with a large company.
D. The design of a large public swimming facility.
50. What is Mr. Wong requesting?
A. The opportunity to bid on a contract.
B. Copies of published project design plans.
C. Permission to distribute information to his colleagues.
D. A review of a municipal annual budget.
51. The word “trade” in paragraph 4, line 2, is closest in meaning to ____.
A. exchange B. diligence
C. industry D. substitute